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Classification Edit

Ceratopsia was coined by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1890 to include dinosaurs possessing certain characteristic features, including horns, a rostral bone, teeth with two roots, fused neck vertebrae, and a forward-oriented pubis. Marsh considered the group distinct enough to warrant its own suborder within Ornithischia.[14] The name is derived from the Greek κερας/keras meaning 'horn' and οψις/opsis meaning 'face'. As early as the 1960s, it was noted that the name Ceratopsia is actually incorrect linguistically and that it should be Ceratopia.[15] However, this spelling, while technically correct, has been used only rarely in the scientific literature, and the vast majority of paleontologists continue to use Ceratopsia. As the ICZN does not govern taxa above the level of superfamily, this is unlikely to change.

Taxonomy Edit

An early ceratopsian: Psittacosaurus

Montanoceratops, a leptoceratopsid

A typical protoceratopsid: Protoceratops skeleton at the Wyoming Dinosaur Center

Styracosaurus, a centrosaurine ceratopsid

Triceratops, one of the largest ceratopsians (a chasmosaurinae ceratopsid). It had solid frill and long horns.

Following Marsh, Ceratopsia has usually been classified as a suborder within the order Ornithischia. While ranked taxonomy has largely fallen out of favor among dinosaur paleontologists, some researchers have continued to employ such a classification, though sources have differed on what its rank should be. Most who still employ the use of ranks have retained its traditional ranking of suborder,[16] though some have reduced to the level of infraorder.[17]

This list of ceratopsian genera by classification and location follows a review by Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. in 2010.[2]

  • Ceratopsia
    • Albalophosaurus - (Japan)
    • Micropachycephalosaurus - (Shandong, eastern China)
    • Stenopelix - (Germany)
    • Yinlong - (Xinjiang, western China)
    • Family Chaoyangsauridae
      • Chaoyangsaurus - (Liaoning, northeastern China)
      • Xuanhuaceratops - (Hebei, China)
    • Family Psittacosauridae
      • Psittacosaurus - (China & Mongolia)
    • Neoceratopsia
      • Archaeoceratops - (Gansu, northwestern China)
      • Auroraceratops - (Gansu, northwestern China)
      • Helioceratops[18] - (Jilin, northwestern China)
      • Koreaceratops[1] - (South Korea)
      • Kulceratops - (Uzbekistan)
      • Liaoceratops - (Liaoning, northeastern China)
      • Microceratus - (Mongolia)
      • Mosaiceratops - (central China)
      • Yamaceratops - (Mongolia)
      • Family Leptoceratopsidae
        • Asiaceratops - (China, Mongolia, Uzbekistan)
        • Cerasinops - (Montana, US)
        • Gryphoceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
        • Ischioceratops - (China)
        • Leptoceratops - (Alberta, Canada & Wyoming, US)
        • Montanoceratops - (Montana, US)
        • Prenoceratops - (Montana, US)
        • Udanoceratops - (Mongolia)
        • Unescoceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
        • Zhuchengceratops - (Zhucheng, China)
      • Family Bagaceratopidae
        • Ajkaceratops - (Hungary)
        • Bagaceratops - (Mongolia)
        • Bainoceratops - (Mongolia)
        • Gobiceratops - (Mongolia)
        • Lamaceratops - (Mongolia)
      • Family Protoceratopsidae
        • Breviceratops - (Mongolia)
        • Graciliceratops - (Mongolia)
        • Magnirostris - (Inner Mongolia, China)
        • Protoceratops - (Mongolia)
      • Superfamily Ceratopsoidea
        • Turanoceratops - (Uzbekistan)
        • Zuniceratops - (New Mexico, US)
        • Family Ceratopsidae
          • Subfamily Centrosaurinae
            • Albertaceratops - (Alberta, Canada & ?Montana, USA)
            • Avaceratops - (Montana, USA)
            • Brachyceratops - (Montana, USA & Alberta, Canada)
            • Centrosaurus - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Coronosaurus - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Diabloceratops - (Utah, USA)
            • Monoclonius - (Montana, USA & Alberta, Canada)
            • Nasutoceratops - (Utah, USA)
            • Rubeosaurus - (Montana, USA)
            • Spinops - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Styracosaurus - (Alberta, Canada & Montana, USA)
            • Xenoceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Tribe Pachyrhinosaurini
              • Achelousaurus - (Montana, USA)
              • Einiosaurus - (Montana, USA)
              • Pachyrhinosaurus- (Alberta, Canada & Alaska, USA)
              • Sinoceratops - (Shandong, China)
          • Subfamily Ceratopsinae
            • Ceratops - (Montana, USA & Alberta, Canada)
          • Subfamily Chasmosaurinae
            • Agathaumas - (Wyoming, USA)
            • Agujaceratops - (Texas, USA)
            • Anchiceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Arrhinoceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Chasmosaurus - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Coahuilaceratops - (Coahuila, Mexico)
            •  ? Dysganus - (Montana, USA)
            • Judiceratops - (Montana, USA)
            • Kosmoceratops - (Utah, USA)
            • Medusaceratops - (Montana, USA)
            • Mojoceratops - (Alberta & Saskatchewan, Canada)
            • Pentaceratops - (New Mexico, USA)
            •  ? Polyonax - (Colorado, USA)
            • Utahceratops - (Utah, USA)
            • Vagaceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
            • Tribe Triceratopsini
              • Eotriceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
              • Nedoceratops - (Wyoming, USA)
              • Ojoceratops - (New Mexico, USA)
              • Regaliceratops - (Alberta, Canada)
              • Tatankaceratops - (South Dakota, USA)
              • Titanoceratops - (New Mexico, USA)
              • Torosaurus - (Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, & Utah, USA & Saskatchewan, Canada)
              • Triceratops - (Montana & Wyoming, USA & Saskatchewan & Alberta, Canada)

Possible ceratopsians from the Southern Hemisphere include the Australian Serendipaceratops, known from an ulna, and Notoceratops from Argentina is known from a single toothless jaw (which has been lost).[19] Craspedodon from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) of Belgium may also be a ceratopsian, specifically a neoceratopsian closer to ceratopsoidea than protoceratopsidae.[20] Possible leptoceratopsid remains have also been described from the early Campanian of Sweden.[21]

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